Mo Tzu

Mo Tzu (Chinese philosopher and theologian, flourished 5th century BCE)

“The ghosts and spirits of past and present are of three kinds only: the spirits of Heaven, the spirits of the mountains and rivers, and the ghosts of men who have died.”

  • From the Basic Writings of Mo Tzu (Explaining Ghosts, part 3, section 31), translated by Burton Watson (Columbia University Press, 1963).


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