This painting, by the French artist Camille Félix Bellanger (c. 1853 – 1923), was inspired by ancient Greek myths about an unfortunate man named Oedipus and particularly aligns quite well with the beginning of a play called Oedipus at Colonus, written by the Greek playwright Sophocles (c. 496-405 BCE). Oedipus at Colonus was Sophocles’ third and final play on the subject of Oedipus, and the plot of the last drama was fittingly set to describe the end of Oedipus’ life. By this point in the tragic story, a lifetime had passed since old Oedipus ran away from his adopted parents in Corinth, which signaled the start of his uncomfortable journey of self-discovery. Long ago were the days when Oedipus had unknowingly murdered his biological father (King Laius of Thebes) and unwittingly married his birth mother (the widowed Queen Jocasta of Thebes). These taboo acts were eventually revealed, but not before Oedipus and Jocasta incestuously had four children together. When the truth was finally discovered, Jocasta hanged herself and Oedipus rendered himself blind. In addition to his blinding, Oedipus went into exile and wandered Greece as a social pariah. No one except Oedipus’ dutiful daughters were willing to care for the blind and disgraced elderly man. One of these daughters—Antigone—is in the painting, seen resting at her father’s side. Like the painting, Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus begins with Oedipus and Antigone taking a break on an uncomfortable stone surface. Sophocles, beginning with dialogue from Oedipus, wrote:
“My child, child of the blind old man—Antigone,
where are we now? What land, what city of men?
Who will receive the wandering Oedipus today?
… [To which Antigone responded:]
Father, old and broken Oedipus, the towers
crowning the city, so far as I can see,
are still a good way off…
Here, bend a knee and sit.
It’s a rough rock, father, but then for an old man
you have come a long hard way from home.”
(Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus, approximately lines 1-20).
It is this scene, or one similar to it, that seems to be playing out in Camille Félix Bellanger’s painting. Oedipus and Antigone likely rest at a place called Colonus, which was near enough to Athens for the Athenian king, Theseus, to stroll out and meet with the father and daughter pair. As told by Sophocles—who was born at Colonus—it was there that Oedipus ultimately died.
Written by C. Keith Hansley
- Sophocles, Three Theban Plays: Antigone; Oedipus the King; Oedipus at Colonus, translated by Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin Classics, 1982, 1984, 2018.